Hello this is very difficult item amongst all in PTE A. You should practice a lot to get good scores. Moreover, this is the highest weight-age marks compared all other items. Follow below cited examples , it may help you.
1. First understands/grasp the given paragraphs and what is for ? by using SKIM and SCAN processes.
2. Identify the topic /main sentence. Mainly consists of key words, person names, technical names, book names, research names, ….etc
3. Topic sentence is stand alone (SA). Independent sentence. it is not dependent on any other sentences given there.
4. Main /topic sentence does not starts with any contradict phrases like (however, but, although) and addition phrases like (Also, moreover, furthermore, besides.. etc)
5. Follow the pronoun rule – it does have terms like he , she, they , those and which is referred or depended by some other sentence.
6. After identify the main paragraph, need to check the relationship of remaining paragraph.
another set of tips
TIPS FOR REORDER PARAGRPH
Parajumbles are jumbled paragraphs. Basically, you are given a paragraph – but the sentences are not in the right order. It’s up to you to untie this knot and rearrange the sentences so that they logically make sense. Normally instructions for this type of questions will read “Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph”.
So go through these
1- TRANSITION WORDS
Transition words make the shift from one idea to another very smooth. They organize and connect the sentences logically. Observing the transition words found in a sentence can often give you a clue about the sentence that will come before/after that particular sentence.
Given below are some commonly used transition words:
also, again, as well as, besides, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, consequently, hence, otherwise, subsequently, therefore, thus, as a rule, generally, for instance, for example, for one thing, above all, aside from, barring, besides, in other words, in short, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, first of all, to begin with, at the same time, for now, for the time being, in time, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind, after all, all in all to sum-up.
EXAMPLE WITH TRANSITION WORDS
A. But in the industrial era destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means bombing the factories which are located in the cities.
B. So in the agrarian era, if you need to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, what you want to do is bum his fields, or if you’re really vicious, salt them.
C. Now in the information era, destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means destroying the information infrastructure.
D. How do you do battle with your enemy?
E. The idea is to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, and depending upon the economic foundation, that productive capacity is different in each case F. With regard to defense, the purpose of the military is to defend the nation and be prepared to do battle with its enemy.
EXPLANATION FOR THE ANSWER transition word “but” in the first sentence. It signifies that the sentence is expressing an idea contrary to an idea expressed in some previous sentence. Now we need to find that previous sentence. If we further look at the beginning of the first sentence, it says “but in the industrial era…” which suggests that the contrariness is with respect to eras.
Looking further, we see that sentence B and C are also starting with statement about eras. But the transition word at the start of C is “now” which expresses present era and hence it cannot chronologically come before any other past era. That is, if information era is the present era, talk about any other era will come before this. So sentence B is the correct sentence to come before the first sentence.
Likewise, sentence C is the correct sentence to come after the first sentence (sentence C is continuing the idea). Therefore, we have the link BAC.
We see that option 1, 3 and 4 all have the link BAC. Furthermore, all the three options have the link EBAC. Therefore, we only need to arrange D and F. The sentence F states that “The purpose is…to battle with the enemy” and D questions “how do you battle with the enemy?” Therefore, D will come .
FDEBAC is the correct arrangement.
2- PERSONAL PRONOUN –
Personal pronouns are he, she, it, him, her, they, you, your etc. Remember that personal pronouns always refer to a person, place or thing etc. Therefore, if a sentence contains a personal pronoun without mentioning the person, place or object it is referring to, the person, place or object must have come in the previous sentence .
EXAMPLE WITH PERSONAL PRONOUN .
A. Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing.
B. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
C. While working, one is struck by the slow and clumsy actions and reactions, indifferent attitudes, procedure rather than outcome orientation, and the lack of consideration for others.
D. Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual.
E. Work is not intrinsically valued in India.
F. Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours.Look at the personal pronoun “they” in sentence B: Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment. This they must be referring to some people. The reference to some people only comes in sentences A, D, and F. Therefore, one of the sentences will come before sentence B. Let’s see the link AB,DB, and FB;
Link AB- Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
Link DB- Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
Link FB- Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
Which of these links makes sense? Only link DB seems coherent. Now, we examine the options with link DB. We see that options 1 and 3 have link DB in them. Also, both the options have link ADBF. Therefore, ADBF is a link. Now we only need to place sentences E and C. We can do that by reading the sentences in the order given in options 1 and 3.
THE FLOW OF AUTHORS IDEA SHOULD BE COMPLETELY LOGICAL; THE AUTHOR DOES NOT JUMP FROM ONE IDEA TO OTHER SUDDENLY.
In link EC, sentence E is talking about work not being valued whereas sentence C is talking about people being clumsy, indifferent, inconsiderate etc. Sentence C is NOT talking about value of work. It is talking about people’s behavior. Therefore, EC cannot be a logical flow.
EADBFC IS THE CORRECT ANSWER
3- DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN-
The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “that” are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and “these” and “those” are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Whenever a sentence contains a demonstrative pronoun without mentioning the noun or the noun phrase, it means that the previous sentence must be mentioning that noun or noun phrase. Finding that noun or noun phrase helps us connect two sentences.
EXAMPLE WITH DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
A. Michael Hofman, a poet and translator, accepts this sorry fact without approval or complaint.
B. But thanklessness and impossibility do not daunt him.
C. He acknowledges too “in fact he returns to the point often ” that best translators of poetry always fail at some level.
D. Hofman feels passionately about his work, and this is clear from his writings.
E. In terms of the gap between worth and rewards, translators come somewhere near nurses and street-cleaners.
Again an easy one. Notice the demonstrative pronoun “this” in sentence A: Michael Hofman, a poet and translator, accepts this sorry fact without approval or complaint. Also note that sentence A is introducing Michael Hofman (Michael Hofman, a poet and translator,…) and will thereby come before every sentence containing the personal pronoun he or him. So which sorry fact is sentence A referring to? It can only be the fact found in sentence E. Also, other sentences contain “he” or “him”.
Therefore, EA is a link. Link EA is contained in option 1, 3 and 4. But in 4, sentence D is coming before sentence A, and this cannot happen because sentence A should be before any other sentence referring to Hofman as sentence A is introducing Hofman. Therefore, we are left with options 1 and 3. The difference between options 1 and 3 is the order of sentence D and B.Link DB- Hofman feels passionately about his work, and this is clear from his writings. But thanklessness and impossibility do not daunt him.
EACBD IS THE RIGHT ANSWER
4- ACRONYM APPROACH
– In PJ we encounter full and short names sometimes acronyms of some term or institution.
Ex-World Trade Organization – WTO
Dr. Manmohan Singh – Dr. Singh
Karl Marx – Marx
President George W. Bush – President bush or the president
EXAMPLE WITH THIS
The rule is that if both full form as well as short form is present in different sentences, then the sentence containing full form will come before the sentence containing short form.
1. If you are used to having your stimulation come in from outside, your mind never develops its own habits of thinking and reflecting
2. Marx thought that religion was the opiate, because it soothed people’s pain and suffering and prevented them from rising in rebellion
3. If Karl Marx was alive today, he would say that television is the opiate of the people.
4. Television and similar entertainments are even more of an opiate because of their addictive tendencies.
3241 THE RIGHT ABSWER
5-TIME SEQUENCE APPROACH-Either dates or time sequence indicating words: Be aware of the time indication either by giving years – or by using time indicating words. Arrange the sentences using their proper time sequence. Here are a few time sequence indicating words -Before after later
EXAMPLE FOR THIS
1. Then two astronomers—the German, Johannes Kepler, and the Italian, Galileo Galilei-started publicly to support the Copernican theory, despite the fact that the orbits it predicted did not quite match the ones observed.
2. His idea was that the sun was stationary at the centre and that the earth and the planets move in circular orbits around the sun.
3. A simple model was proposed in 1514 by a Polish priest, Nicholas Copernicus.
4. Nearly a century passed before this idea was taken serious
SOLUTION EXPLANATION The 3rd sentence talks about the time event and other time vents follow it in a chronological order. So
3241 IS THE RIGHT ANSWER
6- ARTICLE APPROACH
Articles can be divided into two categories –
1. Definite (the) and
2. Indefinite (a and an).
When the author uses ‘a / an’ – he wants to make a general statement – wants to introduce the noun followed by a/an for the first time but when he uses ‘the’ he wants to refer back to some previously discussed noun. It means having ‘the’ is very unlikely in the opening sentence. If ‘a/an’ and ‘the’ both are used for the same noun then the sentence containing ‘the’ will come after the sentence containing a/an.
7- NOUN , PRONOUN AND ADJECTIVE APPROACH– Whenever pronoun comes – it will come in the immediate sentence containing the respective noun.
i. e. A sequence can be like this
………….. no pronoun
i.e. the pronoun sequence will continue till it is halted by a break (i.e. a sentence containing no pronoun) then if necessary it will start with the noun again. We can’t write pronoun after a break. It is not a correct form of writing.
7. All the paragraphs should have a relation with others and try to identify that.
8. Follow general steps like – years wise – Stages of life : Birth , school/education ,marriage,children, death- Stages of a butterfly .. etc
9. It is very important you need write the correct sequence order. How many you write correct sequences you would be awarded like that.
10. After finish the test , review your answer and check the meaning in flow . correct or not